Low back pain affects 4 out of 5 adults during their lifetime. Nearly half of all patients who suffer from an episode of low back pain will have a recurrence within a year.
Back pain is the second most common reason people see a physician and the third most frequent reason for surgery. Thirty percent of adults over the age of 30 have degenerative disc disease and this plays a significant role in making the spine susceptible to back pain. Low back pain is the second most frequent reason (after the common cold) that people under the age of 45 miss work. The vast majority of back problems get better on their own or with non-surgical treatment.
Danger Signals of Back Pain
There are a few signs, however, that may indicate serious spinal problems. If you experience any of these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately.
Possible Causes of Back Pain
Soft Tissue Injury
Strain occurs with a sudden, stressful injury causing stretching or tearing of the muscles, tendons and/or ligaments in and around the spine. Injury to these soft tissue areas can result in intense back and neck pain, headaches, and/or arm or leg pain.
Some research studies note that 80 percent of back and neck pain is caused by muscle strain. Unlike muscles in the legs, which are long and resistant to spasm, the back is composed of short extensor muscles that bridge from vertebra to vertebra. Because these muscles are shorter, they are more prone to spasm. The muscles of the back can be strained with heavy lifting, and discs may herniate, causing inflammation of adjacent nerve roots. Gentle stretching and moderate exercise are recommended to strengthen the muscles of the back to prevent injury.
Many back pain problems could be the result of bulging discs, fissuring, ruptured or herniated discs, or degenerative disc disease.
The Annulus and Nucleus exert pressure on nearby nerves.
The Nucleus is squeezed through the opening in the Annulus causing pressure on nearby nerves.
Bone spurs and overgrowths of the Ligamentum Flavum cause compression on the nerves.
These problems relate to instability in the joints in the low back. Either from a fall, or a defect, a vertebral bone segment may be in a position to slip out of position, causing back pain.
Scoliosis is a curvature of the spine that can first appear in childhood. It is not known why scoliosis occurs, but it does tend to affect women more than men. The curvature of the spine needs to be assessed because in some cases, extreme curves can place pressure on internal organs - which can shorten lifespan if not treated.
In rare cases, back pain can originate in the coccyx, the small section of fused bones at the base of the spine. This pain usually results from a direct fall onto the buttocks or pressure from sitting.
A hard fall or severe jolt to the spine as the result of vigorous physical activity or an accident can crack or fracture vertebrae. A cracked vertebra may put the delicate spinal cord at risk. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair the vertebrae.
There are joints in your spine just like there are joints in your finger. These joints, called facet joints, allow you to bend forward, backward and from side to side. Spurring at the facet joint can cause the nerve, which exists between the two bones to be pinched. Arthritis of the facet joint may result in back or leg pain.
The facet joint between the sacrum and ilium is called the sacro-iliac joint. Arthritis of the sacro-iliac joint may result in back or leg pain.
Many other changes in your body can cause back and neck pain. Some of these include menstruation, abnormal tumors, aortic aneurysms and arthritic conditions.
1 American Association of Neurological Surgeons 2 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 3 MayoClinic.com 4 American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons